Optimization of the Quality and Safety of Cooked Seafood Products
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Studies were performed to monitor the product heating profile during the baking and boiling of shrimp and the baking and pan-frying of salmon. Product color, texture, moisture content, mass loss, and pressed juice were evaluated during the cooking processes as the products reached the internal temperature recommended by the FDA. Studies were also performed on the inactivation of Salmonella cocktails in homogenized and non-homogenized shrimp and salmon. To effectively predict inactivation during cooking, the Bigelow, Fermi distribution, and Weibull distribution models were applied to the homogenized data. Minimum cooking temperatures necessary to destroy Salmonella sp. in shrimp and salmon were also determined. The heating profiles of the two products were modeled using the finite difference method. Temperature data directly from the modeled heating profiles was then used in the kinetic modeling of quality change and Salmonella inactivation during cooking.
It was concluded that consumers need to judge the doneness of both shrimp and Atlantic salmon by the lightness factor (CIE L*) of the core region of both products. The core regionâ s lightness factor, which a consumer may consider as opaqueness, more accurately represented the thermal doneness than the external qualities. The FDAâ s current recommendations for a 3 log reduction for intact seafood products and homogenized seafood products were each analyzed. Results were in agreement with the recommended 68Â°C plus 15 seconds for homogenized products. For intact products, shrimp inactivation results were in agreement with the recommended 63Â°C plus 15 seconds, but intact salmon achieved only a 2 log reduction by the temperature-time combination.
It was also found that predictive models can effectively describe the survival data for two Salmonella cocktails. The Weibull distribution model, which takes into account any tailing effect in survival data, fit the survival data of Salmonella in shrimp acceptably. The Fermi distribution model, which incorporates any shouldering effect in data, was an acceptable fit for the inactivation data for salmon.
Using three-dimensional slab geometry for salmon fillets and two-dimensional frustum cone geometry for shrimp resulted in acceptable model predictions of thermal distributions for the cooking methods studied. The temperature data attained directly from the modeled heating profiles was effectively used in the predictive quality and inactivation models. Agreeable first-order kinetic models were formulated for Î L and Î C color parameters in shrimp and salmon. Other kinetic models formulated were for texture change in salmon and pressed juice in both salmon and shrimp. Using a fixed inactivation level of 3 logs and a fixed quality of 95% best quality, optimal cooking conditions were determined that both provide a high quality product and assure microbial safety. Based on the specific cooking methods in this study, the optimal boiling times for extra jumbo and colossal sized shrimp were 100 seconds and 159 seconds, respectfully. The optimal oven baking times were 233 seconds for extra jumbo shrimp and 378 seconds for colossal shrimp. For Atlantic salmon, the optimal oven baking time was 1132 seconds and the optimal pan frying time was 399 seconds.
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