Applications of Double-Difference Tomography for a Deep Hard Rock Mine
Kerr, Jeffrey Bryan
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Seismicity at a deep hard rock mine can be a precursor to ground failure events. Seismicity data can be used in double-difference tomography, which produce tomograms showing velocity distributions in the rock mass that can be used to infer relative stress of the rock mass. The data set used for the double-difference tomography inversion was from Creighton Mine in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, and consisted of two months of data averaging 150 microseismic events per day. Three separate studies were conducted to evaluate the applications of double-difference tomography on a deep hard rock mine. These studies produced mine scale tomograms, stope scale tomograms of two active stopes, and stope scale tomograms for a cluster of events. TomoDD was used for the tomographic inversion, with other commercial programs used to view the results. All three studies produced results consistent with prior mine knowledge and basic concepts of rock mass stress redistribution. Mine scale tomograms accurately displayed a low velocity where the mined ore body is known to be with adjacent high velocity, stope scale tomograms of the two stopes both correctly demonstrated a low velocity relaxed zone near the stope following a production blast, and stope scale tomograms of an event cluster displayed consistency in results for two clusters in periods before, during, and after each cluster. The three studies show that double-difference tomography is a promising tool for observing rock mass stress redistribution that provides a baseline evaluation for the potential uses of the technology in a deep hard rock mine.
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