Fundamental Studies of the Herschel-Quinke Tube Concept with Mode Measurements
James, Michael Mark
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A fundamental study of the Herschel-Quincke (HQ) tube concept for the reduction of noise in circular ducts is presented here. Recent testing of the Herschel-Quincke tube concept on the Pratt-Whitney JT15D and AlliedSignal TFE731-60 engines showed the potential for the practical application of this approach. A model of the HQ-system has been developed to aid in the design of the system tested. The model has revealed new noise control mechanisms associated to the implementation of multiple HQ-waveguides in a duct in the presence of higher order modes. However, the practical nature of these engine facilities results in limitations with regard to the fundamental research knowledge that could be gained from testing in a more controlled laboratory environment. A series of experiments was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center 0.30 m ducted fan test facility where detailed modal measurements were performed. The main goals of this research endeavor were to evaluate the accuracy of the previously developed theoretical model and provide insight into the noise control mechanisms. Experiments were performed with different disturbance mode structures, number of HQ tubes and arrays, and axial positions. The modes in the duct were generated with an array of acoustic drivers (no flow case) and measured with logarithmically spaced circumferential and helical microphone arrays located on the duct wall. The modal amplitudes of the incident, transmitted, and reflected modes in the duct were determined from the microphone measurements. This allowed for the comparison of analytical and experimental modal amplitudes, modal powers, total power, and reductions. The results of this study provide insight into the three noise control mechanisms associated with this approach: reflection, circumferential scattering, and radial scattering. Comparison with the experimental results shows that the model accurately predicts the sound power attenuation except near the cut-off frequency of the modes where it tends to overestimate the attenuation. The effect of the number of tubes in the array and its axial position was also evaluated. Overall, the results of this study validate the general modeling approach for the HQ tube concept.
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