Textural and Physical Properties of Fat-Free Turkey-Beef Frankfurters: Effects of Non-Meat Ingredients and End-Point Temperature
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The effects of NaCl (1 and 2%), added-water (AW; 30 and 40%), milk protein hydrolysate (MPH; 1, 2 and 3%), and end-point cooking temperature (EPT; 71.1 and 76.7 C) were examined. Regardless of the formulation, all turkey-beef frankfurters contained less than 0.4% fat. As levels of NaCl in the formula increased, the frankfurters had lower (P< 0.05) penetration values (total energy and peak force) but higher shear stress and shear strain. In addition, higher salt levels resulted in lower cooking loss, moisture content, protein content, and darker frankfurters. Increasing AW level reduced (P<0.05) penetration values (total energy and peak force), shear stress, shear modulus, and hardness but increased cohesiveness. Higher levels of AW not only resulted in higher (P<0.05) moisture content but also resulted in higher cooking loss and purge loss. Higher AW products were lighter (P<0.05) in color and less red. Increasing the amount of MPH increased (P<0.05) shear stress and shear modulus but lowered shear strain. Higher MPH reduced cooking loss and produced (P<0.05) darker, more yellow, and less red frankfurters. Higher EPT increased (P<0.05) cooking loss, shear stress, and shear modulus but decreased penetration values (total energy and peak force), shear strain, and cohesiveness. Higher EPT produced lighter (P<0.05) colored frankfurters. There were some two and three-way independent variable interactions (P<0.05) for shear stress, shear strain, and cohesiveness. Of the four independent variables evaluated, AW and EPT most influenced textural properties. By using various combinations of these four independent variables, meat processors would have the ability to improve the quality characteristics of fat-free frankfurters.
- Masters Theses