Derivation, fertility and breeding value of doubled monoploids from the diploid potato species, Solanum phureja
M'Ribu, H. Kabura
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Thirty-two monoploids (2n = x = 12) derived by anther culture of ten diploid clones of Solanum phureja were used to generate doubled monoploids through in vitro shoot regeneration. Doubled monoploids were compared to the anther donor and progenitor monoploids for morphological characteristics, and were evaluated for fertility in the greenhouse and progeny performance under field conditions. Monoploids varied for frequency and earliness of shoot regeneration, number of shoots formed per explant and frequency of chromosome doubling among regenerated shoots. Regeneration was greater when stock plantlets were frequently subcultured (2- or 4-week intervals) and maintained under a 16 h photoperiod, and when explants were incubated at 20°C compared to 25°C. In addition, leaf explants regenerated at higher frequencies than stem explants. Significant high correlations between monoploids and their doubled monoploids were observed for 14 of 17 characters in the greenhouse. Doubled monoploids were significantly greater than monoploids for 15 characters, indicating a positive effect of increasing gene dosage from monoploid to diploid. The anther donor was not significantly greater than the mean of doubled monoploids for 10 characters; therefore, for specific characters, doubled monoploids without homozygote depression can be obtained. Doubled monoploids varied for nurnber of days to flower, duration of flowering, abundance of flowers, flower quality, fruit set and seed set; they had lower fruit and seed set than the anther donor. A few clones produced low levels of stainable pollen which had high 2n pollen frequency but did not germinate in vitro. Therefore, they were considered male-sterile for practical purposes. Used as female parents, doubled monoploids were able to transmit the 2n pollen trait to their progenies. Two of four doubled monoploids exhibited superior general combining ability over the anther donor under field conditions. This demonstrates the potential of passage of a heterozygous genotype through the monoploid sieve. The advantage of the monoploid sieve may be more or less evident depending on the combining ability of the crossing partner and variable performance can be expected among doubled monoploids from an unselected anther donor. The performance of unselected doubled monoploids demonstrates the potential for their utilization in breeding and warrants further research in the area.
- Doctoral Dissertations