A comparison of the effects of conventional testing and two-stage testing procedures on item bias as defined by three statistical techniques
Lane, Carolyn Elizabeth Jones
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The purpose of the study was to compare the effects on item bias of conventional testing procedures to the effects of two-stage testing procedures. It is conjectured that much of the measurement error identified as bias can be explained by factors~ such as guessing or carelessness, attributable to inappropriate matching of test difficulty level and examinee ability level. Methods for detecting bias based on the-traditional definition of item difficulty fail to separate test characteristics from the ability distribution of the respondent sample. The separation of item and ability parameters, however, is an essential ingredient for an objective definition of bias. Such objectivity in measurement is provided by the Rasch latent trait model, which consequently was selected as the basis for this study. Three definitions of bias were considered, two of which were based on the Rasch model.
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