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Pin1 Catalytic and WW Domain Ligands
Chen, Xingguo Ronald
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Pin1 is a peptidyl prolyl isomerase (PPIase) enzyme with two domains, the catalytic domain and the WW domain. Both domains specifically bind pSer/pThrâ Pro motifs. Pin1 plays an important role in regulating the cell cycle, and it is involved in many diseases, such as cancer, HIV-1, Alzheimerâ s disease, asthma, hepatitis B, and rheumatoid arthritis. Pin1 is a very promising target for new drug development. Three stereoisomers: (R,S)-, (S,R)- and (S,S)-Acâ pSerâ Î¨[(Z)CH=C]â Pipâ 2-(2-naphthyl)ethylamine were synthesized as inhibitors binding to the Pin1 catalytic domain. The (R,S)- and (S,R)-isomers were synthesized via a 13-step route, with overall yields of 2.0% and 1.4%, respectively. The newly formed stereogenic center in the piperidyl ring was introduced by a Luche reduction, followed by a stereoselective [2,3]-Still-Wittig rearrangement. The configuration of the stereocenter was determined by NOESY of a bicyclic derivative. The (Z)- to (E)-alkene ratio in the rearrangement was (5.5:1). The (S,S)-isomer was obtained as the epimerized by-product resulting from the (S,R)-isomer in the Na/NH3 deprotection step. The IC50 values for Pin1 inhibition were: 52, 85, and 141 Î¼M, respectively. We concluded that in this Z-alkene isostere, the R-configuration would be preferred at both stereogenic centers, as mimics of L-Ser and L-Pip, to improve the affinity. Combinatorial chemistry is a powerful method to discover biologically active compounds, and solid-phase synthesis is most commonly used to synthesize combinatorial libraries. To identify ligands for the Pin1 WW domain, a library, R1COâ pSerâ Proâ NHR2, was designed. A new solid-phase phosphorylating reagent (SPPR) containing a phosphoramidite function was synthesized in one step from commercially available Wang resin. The SPPR was applied in the preparation of a designed library through parallel synthesis. The library contained 357 members (17 Ã 21), and was screened by an enzyme-linked enzyme binding assay (ELEBA). The best hits were resynthesized, and the competitive dissociation constants, Kd-rel, were measured by ELEBA, with a Kd-rel value of 130 Î¼M for the best ligand. The absolute dissociation constants will be measured by our collaborator, Prof. Jefferey Peng, University of Notre Dame, using NMR methods. Besides the identification of the Pin1 WW domain ligands, I created a practical method for solid-phase synthesis of phosphopeptides.
- Doctoral Dissertations