Development of New N-Cyclopropyl Based Electron Transfer Probes for Cytochrome P-450 and Monoamine Oxidase Catalyzed Reactions
Grimm, Michelle L
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The recent upsurge of degenerative diseases believed to be the result of oxidative stress has sparked an increased interest in utilizing the fundamental principles of physical organic chemistry to understand biological problems. Enzyme pathways can pose several experimental complications due to their complexity, therefore the small molecule probe approach can be utilized in an attempt understand the more complex enzyme mechanisms. The work described in this dissertation focuses on the use of N-cyclopropyl amines that have been used as probes to study the mechanism of monoamine oxidase (MAO) and cytochrome P-450 (cP-450). A photochemical model study of benzophenone triplet (3BP) with the MAO-B substrate 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and two of itâ s derivatives, 1-cyclopropyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine and (+/-)-[trans-2-phenylcyclopropyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine is presented in Chapter 2. The barrier for ring opening of aminyl radical cations derived from N-cyclopropyl derivatives of tertiary amines (such as MPTP) is expected to be low. Reactions of 3BP with all three compounds are very similar. The results suggest that the reaction between benzophenone triplet and tertiary aliphatic amines proceed via a simple hydrogen atom transfer reaction. Additionally these model examinations provide evidence that oxidations of N-cyclopropyl derivatives of MPTP catalyzed by MAO-B may not be consistent with a pure SET pathway. The chemistry of N-cyclopropyl amines has been used to study the mechanism of amine oxidations by cP-450. Until recently, the rate constant for these ring opening reactions has not been reported. Direct electrochemical examinations of N-cyclopropyl-N-methylaniline showed that the radical cation undergoes a unimolecular rearrangement consistent with a cyclopropyl ring opening reaction. Examination of both the direct and indirect electrochemical data showed that the oxidation potential N-cyclopropyl-N-methylaniline to be +0.528 V (0.1 M Ag+/Ag), and rate constant for ring opening of 4.1 x 104 s-1. These results are best explained by two phenomena: (i) a resonance effect in which the spin and charge of the radical cation in the ring closed form is delocalized into the benzene ring hindering the overall rate of the ring opening reaction, and/or (ii) the lowest energy conformation of the molecule does not meet the stereoelectronic requirements for a ring opening pathway. Therefore a new series of spiro cyclopropanes were designed to lock the cyclopropyl group into the appropriate bisected conformation. The electrochemical results reported herein show that the rate constant for ring opening of 1'-methyl-3',4'-dihydro-1'H-spiro[cyclopropane-1,2'-quinoline] and 6'-chloro-1'-methyl-3',4'-dihydro-1'H-spiro[cyclopropane-1,2'-quinoline] are 3.5 x 102 s-1 and 4.1 x 102 s-1 with redox potentials of 0.3 V and 0.366 V respectively. In order to examine a potential resonance effect a derivative of N-methyl-N-cyclopropylaniline was synthesized to provide a driving force for the ring opening reaction thereby accelerating the overall rate of the ring opening pathway. The electrochemical results show that the rate constant for ring opening of 4-chloro-N-methyl-N-(2-phenylcyclopropyl)aniline to be 1.7 x 108 s-1 . The formal oxidation potential (EÂ°OX) of this substrate was determined to be 0.53 V. The lowered redox potentials of 1'-methyl-3',4'-dihydro-1'H-spiro[cyclopropane-1,2'-quinoline] and 6'-chloro-1'-methyl-3',4'-dihydro-1'H-spiro[cyclopropane-1,2'-quinoline] can be directly attributed to the electron donating character of the ortho alkyl group of the quinoline base structure of these spiro derivatives, and therefore the relative energy of the ring closed radical cations directly affects the rate of ring opening reactions. The relief of ring strain coupled with the formation of the highly resonance stabilized benzylic radical explains the rate increase for the ring opening reaction of 4-chloro-N-methyl-N-(2-phenylcyclopropyl)aniline.
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