The effects of priming on vigor and viability of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck) seeds
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The testa was observed to be a barrier to broccoli seed germination. Priming-induced changes to the physical characteristics of broccoli seeds included increased volume (32%) and an irreversibly expanded, and weakened testa with some minute cracking near the area where the radicle emerges. Primed seeds germinated faster, in part by maintaining a lower hydrotime constant, and thus exhibited a greater progression towards germination per unit water potential at a constant temperature compared with nonprimed seeds. It was hypothesized that, since the testa threshold was reduced after priming by expansion and formation of free spaces, the reversibly expanded embryo of primed seeds does not become immediately appressed to the testa upon rehydration. Thus the yield threshold component controlling the rate of germination of primed seeds is lower by the amount of the testa threshold. The priming effect is more than just reducing the yield threshold as indicated by a significant invigoration of seeds with split testae. Despite the increased volume as a result of the formation of free spaces, primed broccoli seeds did not imbibe more water or have a greater turgor at full hydration. Priming did not lower the minimum water potential allowing germination, and primed seeds did not plateau in water uptake but, instead, moved immediately from imbibition to expansive growth. Priming improved the germination rate of broccoli seeds at all stages of maturity with the most significant effects at stages before attainment of maximum dry weight. Dry storage of broccoli seeds at harvest able maturity (â ¥ 56 days after pollination) did not improve germination, indicating a lack of post harvest dormancy.
- Doctoral Dissertations