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dc.contributor.authorKostyanovskiy, Kirill Igorevichen_US
dc.date.accessioned2014-03-14T21:19:16Z
dc.date.available2014-03-14T21:19:16Z
dc.date.issued2009-09-17en_US
dc.identifier.otheretd-10012009-195240en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/39473
dc.description.abstractDeep row incorporation (DRI) is a biosolids recycling method that is especially appropriate for reclaiming disturbed land because of the extremely high application rates used. Nutrient additions in excess of the vegetation requirements, especially in coarse-textured soils, can potentially impair water quality. Increasing C and N additions with biosolids DRI can also generate emissions of greenhouse gases N2O and CH4 and decrease the value of C sequestration. Objectives of this research were: (i) compare the effects of DRI biosolids type and rate and annual conventional fertilizer application on N and P leaching losses; (ii) determine the effects of aging on the N, C and P dynamics in the DRI biosolids seams; (iii) compare the effects of biosolids type and conventional N fertilization on N2O, CH4 and CO2 emissions; and (iv) compare the effects of DRI biosolids and conventional N fertilization on hybrid poplar biomass dynamics, C, N and P sequestration. The following eight treatments were established to achieve objectives (i) and (iv): 0 (control), 167, 337, 504 kg N ha-1 yr-1 as conventional fertilizer; 213 and 426 Mg ha-1 anaerobically digested (AD) and 328 and 656 Mg ha-1 lime stabilized (LS) biosolids applied in trenches. The amount of N lost from the DRI biosolids was 261â 803 kg N ha-1, while the fertilizer treatments were not different from 0 kg N ha-1 yr-1 control. Orthophosphate and TKP leached in negligible amounts. Deep row biosolids incorporation did not pose P leaching risks but did result in high N leaching below the biosolids seams. Aboveground biomass production in the biosolids treatments was not different from the control treatment and ranged from 2.1±0.3 to 4.0±0.5 kg tree-1. The fertilizer treatments produced significantly less biomass than the control and the biosolids treatments. Hybrid poplars sequestered up to 3.20±0.54 Mg C ha-1, 71±12 kg N ha-1, and 11.0±1.8 kg P ha-1. The planting density capable of the N uptake in order to avoid N leaching was estimated at 3912 to 11363 trees ha-1. Our results suggest increased hybrid poplar planting density and decreased application rates of DRI biosolids may decrease the risk of groundwater contamination with N. Three treatments were compared to address objective (ii): 426 Mg ha-1 AD and 656 Mg ha-1 LS biosolids. Organic C losses were 81 Mg ha-1 and 33 Mg ha-1 for LS and AD biosolids, respectively. Total N lost over the course of two years was 15.2 Mg ha-1 and 10.9 Mg ha-1 for LS and AD biosolids, respectively, which was roughly 50% of the N applied. No significant losses of P were detected. Most of the P was Al- and Fe-bound in the AD biosolids and Ca-bound in the LS biosolids. Our results indicated that recommended rates of DRI biosolids in coarse textured soils should be based on crop N requirements and N mineralization considerations, and P mobility from biosolids of the type used should not pose a water quality risk. Four treatments were compared to address objective (iii): 426 Mg ha-1 AD and 656 Mg ha-1 LS biosolids; 0 (control) and 504 kg N ha-1 yr-1 as conventional fertilizer. Contributions from CH4 and CO2 emissions to the radiative forcing were very small compared to N2O. More N2O was produced in the DRI biosolids treatments than in the conventional fertilizer treatments, and N2O production was higher in AD than in LS. Expressed as global warming potentials, N2O emissions from AD (101.5 Mg C ha-1) were 4.6 times higher than from LS and 14.5-16.1 times higher than from the fertilizer treatments. High N2O emissions from deep row incorporated biosolids reduce the C sequestration benefits of the DRI method.en_US
dc.publisherVirginia Techen_US
dc.relation.haspartKostyanovskiy_KI_D_2009.pdfen_US
dc.rightsI hereby certify that, if appropriate, I have obtained and attached hereto a written permission statement from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis, dissertation, or project report, allowing distribution as specified below. I certify that the version I submitted is the same as that approved by my advisory committee. I hereby grant to Virginia Tech or its agents the non-exclusive license to archive and make accessible, under the conditions specified below, my thesis, dissertation, or project report in whole or in part in all forms of media, now or hereafter known. I retain all other ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis, dissertation or project report. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis, dissertation, or project report.en_US
dc.subjectnutrient leachingen_US
dc.subjectcarbon sequestrationen_US
dc.subjectgreenhouse gas emissionen_US
dc.subjectbioenergy cropsen_US
dc.subjectSludge recyclingen_US
dc.titleTransformation of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Deep Row Biosolids Incorporation-Hybrid Poplar Plantation in Coastal Plain Mined Land Reclamation Sitesen_US
dc.typeDissertationen_US
dc.contributor.departmentCrop and Soil Environmental Sciencesen_US
dc.description.degreePh. D.en_US
thesis.degree.namePh. D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineCrop and Soil Environmental Sciencesen_US
dc.contributor.committeechairEvanylo, Gregory K.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberShang, Chaoen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberAlley, Marcus M.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberDaniels, Walter Leeen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberFox, Thomas R.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberBerry, Duane F.en_US
dc.identifier.sourceurlhttp://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-10012009-195240/en_US
dc.date.sdate2009-10-01en_US
dc.date.rdate2009-11-04
dc.date.adate2009-11-04en_US


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