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dc.contributor.authorHoffman, Rhonda Michelleen_US
dc.date.accessioned2014-03-14T21:23:53Z
dc.date.available2014-03-14T21:23:53Z
dc.date.issued1997-06-30en_US
dc.identifier.otheretd-62597-9439en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/40512
dc.description.abstractThe objective of these studies was to design an optimal nutritional supplement suitable for grazing horses using fat and fiber to replace the grain and molasses in the traditional sweet feed. Thoroughbred mares and foals grazing bluegrass/clover pastures were used in these studies, twenty mares and their foals in 1994 to 1995, and twenty mares and foals in 1995 to 1996. Seasonal variation in pasture was examined, and the need for supplementation of nutrients and fibers was assessed. The nutritional status of grazing mares, foals, weanlings and yearlings, fed either a starch and sugar supplement (SS) or a fat and fiber supplement (FF), was examined using growth measurements, radiographic bone evaluations, milk composition and glucose tolerance tests. These studies suggest that fiber may be an important component of an ideal supplement for improved grass/legume pastures. Seasonal variation in pasture indicated an increase in hydrolyzable and rapidly fermed carbohydrates during periods of rapid growth. The FF supplement may have buffered seasonal changes and the increased hydrolyzable carbohydrate content in rapidly growing pasture, as evidenced by smoother growth curves in the yearlings. Young horses, after weaning until the following May, had lower estimated bone mineral content when fed the FF supplement. The lower bone mineral content in the FF supplemented horses may have been due to decreased absorption of calcium or metabolic and hormonal changes associated with adaptation to the different energy sources in the supplements. Milk composition of FF supplemented mares was influenced in ways likely to improve foal health. The FF supplemented mares had enhanced linoleic acid content, which may reduce the risk of gastric ulcers in foals, and increased immunoglobulin G concentration, which may enhance passive immunity. The carbohydrate status of mares, as assessed by glucose tolerance tests, indicated a slower glucose clearance that could be a metabolic adaptation of the mares to the SS and FF supplements.en_US
dc.publisherVirginia Techen_US
dc.relation.haspartTITLETD.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartABSTRACT.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartACK.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartCONTENTS.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartTABLES.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartFIGURES.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartINTRO.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartFIG11.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartFIG12.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartFIG13.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartFIG14.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartOS.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartLITCITED.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartMANDM.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartFIG21.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartGROWTH1.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartFIG31.PDFen_US
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dc.relation.haspartFIG44.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartFIG45.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartFIG46.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartBONE.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartFIG51.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartFIG52.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartFIG53.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartFIG54.PDFen_US
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dc.relation.haspartFIG57.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartFIG58.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartMILK.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartFIG61.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartFIG62.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartFIG63.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartGLUCOSE.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartFIG71.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartFIG72.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartFIG73.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartFIG74.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartNSC.PDFen_US
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dc.relation.haspartFIG83.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartFIG84.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartFIG85.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartDISCUSS.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartIMPS.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartVITA.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartGROWTH2.PDFen_US
dc.relation.hasparthFIG16.PDFen_US
dc.relation.hasparthREVIEW.PDFen_US
dc.rightsI hereby grant to Virginia Tech or its agents the right to archive and to make available my thesis or dissertation in whole or in part in the University Libraries in all forms of media, now or hereafter known. I retain all proprietary rights, such as patent rights. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis or dissertation.en_US
dc.subjectgrowthen_US
dc.subjectbone developmenten_US
dc.subjectmilk compositionen_US
dc.subjectglucose toleranceen_US
dc.subjectseasonen_US
dc.titleCarbohydrate and Fat Supplementation in Grazing Mares and Foalsen_US
dc.typeDissertationen_US
dc.contributor.departmentAnimal and Poultry Sciencesen_US
thesis.degree.namePhDen_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen_US
dc.contributor.committeechairKronfeld, David S.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberSklan, David S.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberSwecker, William S. Jr.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberLawrence, Larry A.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberJack, Nancy E.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberHerbein, Joseph H. Jr.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberBowen, John M.en_US
dc.identifier.sourceurlhttp://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-62597-9439/en_US
dc.date.sdate1997-06-30en_US
dc.date.rdate1998-08-04
dc.date.adate1997-08-04en_US


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