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dc.contributor.authorJenson, Lacey Joen_US
dc.description.abstractDue to the increasing resistance demonstrated by insects to conventional insecticides, the need for compounds with novel modes of action is becoming more urgent. Also, the discovery and production of new insecticides is vital as regulations and restrictions on conventional insecticides become increasingly stringent (Casida and Quistad 1998). Research in this area requires screening of many candidate compounds which is costly and time-consuming. The goal of this research was to produce in vitro insect neurons from Sf21 insect ovarian cell lines, which could lead to new high throughput screening methods and a way to mass produce insect material for basic research. This study used a culture of Sf21 cells and a mixture of differentiation agents to produce viable neuron-like cells. In the presence of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE), or insulin, in the growth medium, Sf21 cells began to express neuronal morphology, or the production of elongated, axon-like processes within 2-3 days. Maximal differentiation occurred when in the presence of 42 μM 20-HE or 10 μM insulin. Effects were maximal on day 2 for 20-E and day 3 for insulin. Insulin was more potent at day 2 for inducing differentiation (EC50 = 247 nM) than 20-HE (EC50 = 13 µM). In combination, 20-HE and insulin produced apparent synergistic effects on differentiation. Caffeine, a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant, inhibited induction of elongated processes by 20-HE and/or insulin. Caffeine was a potent inhibitor of 42 µM 20-HE, with an IC50 of 9 nM, and the inhibition was incomplete, resulting in about one quarter of the differentiated cells remaining, even at high concentrations (up to 1 mM). The ability to induce a neural phenotype simplifies studies with of insect cells, compared to either the use of primary nervous tissue or genetic engineering techniques. The presence of ion channels or receptors in the differentiated cells remains to be determined. If they are present, high throughput screening for new insecticides will be accelerated and made more economical by the utility of this method.en_US
dc.publisherVirginia Techen_US
dc.rightsI hereby certify that, if appropriate, I have obtained and attached hereto a written permission statement from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis, dissertation, or project report, allowing distribution as specified below. I certify that the version I submitted is the same as that approved by my advisory committee. I hereby grant to Virginia Tech or its agents the non-exclusive license to archive and make accessible, under the conditions specified below, my thesis, dissertation, or project report in whole or in part in all forms of media, now or hereafter known. I retain all other ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis, dissertation or project report. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis, dissertation, or project report.en_US
dc.subjectNeuronal Phenotypeen_US
dc.subjectHigh-Throughput Screeningen_US
dc.subjectInsecticide Discoveryen_US
dc.description.degreeMaster of Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.nameMaster of Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen_US
dc.contributor.committeechairBloomquist, Jeffrey R.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberAdelman, Zachary N.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberPaulson, Sally L.en_US

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