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dc.contributor.authorMishra, Anuragen_US
dc.date.accessioned2014-03-14T21:31:49Z
dc.date.available2014-03-14T21:31:49Z
dc.date.issued2003-12-04en_US
dc.identifier.otheretd-03162004-143524en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/41635
dc.description.abstractThe increase of animal agriculture coupled with excess manure production, and the reduced availability of land has led to the over application of animal manure on agricultural fields. The excessive application of manure is responsible for nutrient and bacterial pollution of downstream waterbodies. Manure application based on the crop phosphorus (P) requirements has been recommended as a viable method to reduce nutrient pollution. A plot scale study was conducted to measure the loss of nutrients and bacterial transport in runoff from cropland treated with poultry litter, dairy manure and inorganic fertilizer according to the P requirements of the crop. Three simulated rainfall events were conducted 1, 2 and 35 days after planting of corn. Highest P and N concentrations were observed in the runoff from plots treated with poultry litter, followed by dairy manure and inorganic fertilizer. The poultry litter treated plots exhibited highest concentrations of bioavailable P in the runoff, compared to all other treatments. The P from poultry litter treated plots was also mostly in the soluble form, which underscores the need to control the runoff from cropland in order to decrease the P losses from the poultry litter treated fields. The edge of the field nutrient concentrations observed in this study were high enough to cause severe to moderate eutrophication problems in downstream waterbodies unless they are diluted. In general, nutrient concentrations were lower during the second simulated event, compared with those from the first event. A significant reduction in the nutrient concentrations of runoff was observed from the second to the third simulated event for all the treatments. This reduction was attributed to the loss of nutrients by natural rainfall-runoff events during the time period between the second and the third simulated rainfall event, plant uptake of nutrients, sorption and leaching processes. The indicator bacteria analyzed in the present study were fecal Coliform (FC), Escherichia Coli (E.Coli) and Enterococcus (ENT). The bacterial concentrations reported in the runoff for the first and second simulated events were 104 to 105 times higher than the federal and state limits for primary contact recreation waters. No significant effect of treatments was observed on the bacterial concentrations in runoff. The highest concentrations were observed for FC, followed by ENT and EC in the runoff. The ratio of bacteria removed in runoff to the bacteria applied also followed the above trend. The concentrations of bacteria generally increased from the first to second simulated event; unlike the nutrients. However, the bacterial concentrations dropped significantly from second to the third simulated rainfall event to the levels lower than those designated for primary contact recreation water limits. This reduction was attributed to the washing away of bacteria by the heavy rainfall-runoff events in the period between second and third simulated rainfall events and the die-off of bacteria. The results reported from this study suggest that the manure application based on crop P requirements can also be a significant source of nutrient pollution and should be coupled with other best management practices (BMPs) also to reduce nutrient pollution. The results also suggest that the manure treated cropland can be a source for significant indicator bacterial pollution and appropriate BMPs are required to mitigate their effect.en_US
dc.publisherVirginia Techen_US
dc.relation.haspartthesis_anmishra.pdfen_US
dc.rightsI hereby certify that, if appropriate, I have obtained and attached hereto a written permission statement from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis, dissertation, or project report, allowing distribution as specified below. I certify that the version I submitted is the same as that approved by my advisory committee. I hereby grant to Virginia Tech or its agents the non-exclusive license to archive and make accessible, under the conditions specified below, my thesis, dissertation, or project report in whole or in part in all forms of media, now or hereafter known. I retain all other ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis, dissertation or project report. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis, dissertation, or project report.en_US
dc.subjectrainfall simulatoren_US
dc.subjectenterococcusen_US
dc.subjectnutrientsen_US
dc.subjectphosphorusen_US
dc.subjectnitrogenen_US
dc.subjectindicator bacteriaen_US
dc.subjectfecal coliformen_US
dc.subjectescherichia colien_US
dc.titleNutrient and Bacterial Transport From Agricultural Lands Fertlized With Different Animal Manuresen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US
dc.contributor.departmentBiological Systems Engineeringen_US
dc.description.degreeMaster of Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.nameMaster of Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.levelmastersen_US
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineBiological Systems Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.committeechairMostaghimi, Saieden_US
dc.contributor.committeememberDillaha, Theo A. IIIen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMullins, Gregory L.en_US
dc.identifier.sourceurlhttp://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-03162004-143524/en_US
dc.date.sdate2004-03-16en_US
dc.date.rdate2005-03-26
dc.date.adate2004-03-26en_US


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