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Child- vs. adult-directed speech and self-esteem :effects on the task performances, arousal, and future esteem of elderly adults
In a sample of older individuals, the effects of speech type and initial esteem level on performance and subsequent esteem were explored in the present study. Results were inconclusive. Practice effects were found for all subjects, regardless of group membership on all tasks. Speech and Esteem effects were found for the number of errors made on the mirror-tracing task, however, with both Low Esteem subjects and subjects who received Child-Directed Speech making fewer errors than High Esteem subjects and subjects who received Adult-Directed Speech. These results were contrary to what would be predicted by current theory involving child-directed speech. Also, the cardiovascular measures of blood pressure (i.e., systolic and diastolic pressure) and heart rate showed a pattern indicating an anger response or emotion throughout experimental situation.