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A reassessment of the influence of Sherwood Anderson and Gertrude Stein upon Ernest Hemingway
This study challenges the common assumption that Hemingway's early
style is indebted to the work of Sherwood Anderson and Gertrude Stein
and finds the evidence less than compelling. Unlike previous
examinations, this study considers Hemingway's early journalism and
correspondence as well as his first published fiction; additionally, it
suggests models of influence other than Anderson and Stein, such as Ring Lardner and Stephen Crane.
Because the critical tradition most often identifies "repetition"
and "colloquialisms" as bases for attributing influence to Anderson and
Stein, I discuss those characteristics individually, concluding that
Hemingway's debt to Stein's use of repetition and Anderson's use of
colloquial style has been overstated. I also assess the individual
style of each author and identify the fundamental differences among
them. And, finally, I suggest promising avenues which may lead to new
associations between Hemingway and the forces which helped to shape his