The effects of different processing parameters (cold soak and percent alcohol (v/v) at dejuicing) on the concentrations of grape glycosides and glycoside fractions and glycosidase activities in selected yeast and lactic acid bacteria.
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Grape-derived aroma and flavor precursors exist partially as non-volatile, sugar-bound glycosides. Hydrolysis of these compounds may modify sensory attributes and potentially enhance wine quality. Cold soak (prefermentation skin contact) at two temperatures and alcohol content (%, v/v) at dejuicing were monitored to determine effects on Cabernet Sauvignon glycoside concentration. Total, phenolic-free, and red-free glycoside concentrations were estimated by the quantification of glycosyl-glucose. Cold soak (5 days at 10Â° C) increased total glycosides by 77%, red-free glycosides by 80%, and phenolic-free glycosides by 96%. Ambient soak (3 days at 20Â° C) enhanced color extraction, and increased total glycosides by 177%, red-free glycosides by 144%, and phenolic-free glycosides by 106%. Wines produced by early pressing (10% sugar) had 25% more total and red-free glycosides than late press (0.25% sugar). After post-fermentation malolactic fermentation, total glycosides were 14% lower and phenolic-free glycosides were 35% lower. In a second study, the activities of a-L-arabinofuranosidase, b-glucosidase, and a-L-rhamnoyranosidase were determined in model systems for thirty-two strains of yeasts belonging to the following genera: Aureobasidium, Candida, Cryptococcus, Hanseniaspora, Hansenula, Kloeckera, Metschnikowia, Pichia, Saccharomyces, Torulaspora, and Brettanomyces (10 strains); and seven bacteria (Leuconostoc oenos strains). Only one Saccharomyces strain exhibited -glucosidase activity, but several non-Saccharomyces yeast species had substantial production. Aureobasidium pullulans hydrolyzed a-L-arabinofuranoside, b-glucoside, and a-L-rhamnoyranoside. Eight Brettanomyces strains had -glucosidase activity. Location of enzyme activity was determined for those species with enzymatic activity. The majority of -glucosidase was located in the whole cell fraction (66%), followed by the permeabilized fraction (35%), and extracellular production (2%). Aureobasidium pullulans was also capable of hydrolyzing grape glycosides.
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