Dense gas effects in a converging-diverging nozzle
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Analytical and computational models for the solution of steady inviscid flows in a converging-diverging nozzle are presented for a general fluid. The main emphasis is placed on Bethe-Zel'dovich-Thompson fluids, i.e., those having specific heats so large that the fundamental derivative of gasdynamic is negative over a finite range of pressures and temperatures. Three general classes of flow are delineated which include two nonclassical types in addition to the usual classical flows; the latter are qualitatively similar to those of a perfect gas. The nonclassical flows are characterized by isentropes containing as many as three sonic points. Numerical solutions depicting finite strength expansion shocks, steady flows with shock waves standing upstream . of the nozzle throat, and steady flows containing as many as three shock waves are presented. Nonclassical flows having arbitrarily large exit Mach numbers can be obtained only if a sonic expansion shock is formed in the nozzle.
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