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dc.contributor.authorWinston, David R.en_US
dc.date.accessioned2014-03-14T21:52:56Z
dc.date.available2014-03-14T21:52:56Z
dc.date.issued1998-05-29en_US
dc.identifier.otheretd-52398-112651en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/46498
dc.description.abstractTwo surveys evaluated heifer management practices in dairy herds and custom grower operations. The NC-119 Heifer Management Survey conducted through the North Central Regional Research Project 119 included 226 Holstein and 67 Jersey herds from MN, MO, PA, VA, and WA. Mean rolling herd average for milk was 8,838 and 6,251 kg for Holstein and Jersey herds, respectively. Calf mortality rates from birth to first calving were 15.3 % for Holsteins and 15.8% for Jerseys. High producing herds had more aggressive, preventive health programs, hand-fed colostrum to newborn calves, and used prepartum groups and separate postpartum groups for first calf heifers. Practices associated with low calf mortality included using maternity pens in barns separate from the dairy herd as a calving facility and vaccination for brucellosis, an indicator of the level of overall management. Larger herds weaned calves earlier, placed more importance on heifer size as a criterion for first breeding, and used prepartum groups and separate postpartum groups for first calf heifers States differed in calving facility and calf housing choices. Calf mortality rates were similar among states. The Virginia Custom Dairy Heifer Rearing Survey included 24 growers. Average herd size was 194 head. Seven growers contracted with dairy producers, nine purchased, raised, and resold heifers, and eight did both. Survey results indicated a need for increased emphasis in several management areas. Only two contract growers had written contracts. Fifty-eight percent never monitored growth and 42% did not have forages tested or rations balanced. Fifty-seven percent used AI.en_US
dc.publisherVirginia Techen_US
dc.relation.haspartETD.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartAPPA.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartAPPB.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartAPPC.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartAPPD.PDFen_US
dc.relation.haspartVITA.PDFen_US
dc.rightsI hereby grant to Virginia Tech or its agents the right to archive and to make available my thesis or dissertation in whole or in part in the University Libraries in all forms of media, now or hereafter known. I retain all proprietary rights, such as patent rights. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis or dissertation.en_US
dc.subjectheifer managementen_US
dc.subjectcustom heifer growersen_US
dc.titleA Five State Survey of Heifer Management Practices on Dairy Farms and Virginia Custom Dairy Heifer Growing Operationsen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US
dc.contributor.departmentDairy Scienceen_US
dc.description.degreeMaster of Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.nameMaster of Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.levelmastersen_US
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineDairy Scienceen_US
dc.contributor.committeechairJames, Robert E.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberStallings, Charles C.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMcGilliard, Michael L.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberKohl, David M.en_US
dc.identifier.sourceurlhttp://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-52398-112651/en_US
dc.date.sdate1998-05-29en_US
dc.date.rdate1999-06-23
dc.date.adate1998-06-23en_US


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