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dc.contributorVirginia Tech
dc.contributor.authorAngermeier
dc.date.accessioned2014-03-27T13:06:09Z
dc.date.available2014-03-27T13:06:09Z
dc.date.issued1996-08
dc.identifier.citationJohn Cairns Jr. and B. R. Niederlehner 1996. Developing a Field of Landscape Ecotoxicology. Ecological Applications 6:790-796. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2269484
dc.identifier.issn1051-0761
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/46858
dc.description.abstractSince toxicants are spread over ecological landscapes, it seems likely that they have effects at that level of ecological organization. Landscape ecotoxicology examines the effects of toxic chemicals on larger scales than traditional environmental toxicology. This approach is characterized by the use of endpoints appropriate to the spatial scale across which a toxicant is dispersed, attention to interactions between physical and temporal patterns and the process of ecological impairment, and integration of multiple lines of evidence for toxicity at various scales. In addition, landscape ecotoxicology seeks predictive models in order to influence human actions before environmental damage occurs. Integrating information from damaged systems, toxicity tests, simulation models, and biomonitoring of healthy systems provides the best basis for decisions. Rapid progress in landscape ecotoxicology is expected as scientists incorporate tools, such as remote sensing and spatially explicit simulation models, and then calibrate these models using data from longterm biomonitoring of large areas. Further integration into combined socio-economic-ecological models is also possible.
dc.language.isoen_US
dc.publisherEcological Society of America
dc.subjectcumulative impact
dc.subjectecotoxicology
dc.subjectendpoints
dc.subjectlandscape pattern
dc.subjectscale
dc.subjecteffects
dc.subjectstressed ecosystems
dc.subjecttoxic stress
dc.subjectecological risk assessment
dc.subjectregional scale
dc.subjectpollution
dc.subjectforest
dc.subjectperspective
dc.subjectdeposition
dc.subjectsmelter
dc.subjectmodels
dc.titleDeveloping a field of landscape ecotoxicology
dc.typeArticle - Refereed
dc.identifier.urlhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2269484
dc.date.accessed2014-03-11
dc.title.serialEcological Applications
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.2307/2269484


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