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Implanted Antennas and Intra-Body Propagation Channel for Wireless Body Area Network
Ibraheem, Ali Ahmed Younis
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Implanted Devices are important components of the Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) as a promising technology in biotelemetry, e-health care and hyperthermia applications. The design of WBAN faces many challenges, such as frequency band selection, channel modeling, antenna design, physical layer (PHY) protocol design, medium access control (MAC) protocol design and power source. This research focuses on the design of implanted antennas, channel modeling between implanted devices and Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) for implanted devices. An implanted antenna needs to be small while it maintains Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) and is able to cope with the detuning effect due to the electrical properties of human body tissues. Most of the proposed antennas for implanted applications are electric field antennas, which have a high near-zone electric field and, therefore, a high SAR and are sensitive to the detuning effect. This work is devoted to designing a miniaturized magnetic field antenna to overcome the above limitations. The proposed Electrically Coupled Loop Antenna (ECLA) has a low electric field in the near-zone and, therefore, has a small SAR and is less sensitive to the detuning effect. The performance of ECLA, channel model between implanted devices using Path Loss (PL) and WPT for implanted devices are studied inside different human body models using simulation software and validated using experimental work. The study is done at different frequency bands: Medical Implanted Communication Services (MICS) band, Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) band and 3.5 GHz band using ECLA. It was found that the proposed ECLA has a better performance compared to the previous designs of implanted antennas. Based on our study, the MICS band has the best propagation channel inside the human body model among the allowed frequency bands. The maximum PL inside the human body between an implanted antenna and a base station on the surface is about 90 dB. WPT for implanted devices has been investigated as well, and it has been shown that for a device located at 2 cm inside the human body with an antenna radius of 1 cm an efficiency of 63% can be achieved using the proposed ECLA.
- Doctoral Dissertations