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Stability Analysis of Three-Phase AC Power Systems Based on Measured D-Q Frame Impedances
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Small-signal stability is of great concern for distributed power systems with a large number of regulated power converters. These converters are constant-power loads (CPLs) exhibit a negative incremental input resistance within the output voltage regulation bandwidth. In the case of dc systems, design requirements for impedances that guarantee stability have been previously developed and are used in the design and specification of these systems. In terms of three-phase ac systems, a mathematical framework based on the generalized Nyquist stability criterion (GNC), reference frame theory, and multivariable control is set forth for stability assessment. However, this approach relies on the actual measurement of these impedances, which up to now has severely hindered its applicability. Addressing this shortcoming, this research investigates the small-signal stability of three-phase ac systems using measured d-q frame impedances. Prior to this research, negative incremental resistance is only found in CPLs as a results of output voltage regulation. In this research, negative incremental resistance is discovered in grid-tied inverters as a consequence of grid synchronization and current injection, where the bandwidth of the phase-locked loop determines the frequency range of the negative incremental resistance behavior, and the power rating of inverter determines the magnitude of the resistance. Prior to this research, grid synchronization stability issue and sub-synchronous oscillations between grid-tied inverter and its nearby rectifier under weak grid condition are reported and analyzed using characteristic equation of the system. This research proposes a more design oriented analysis approach based on the negative incremental resistance concept of grid-tied inverters. Grid synchronization stability issues are well explained under the framework of GNC. Although stability and its margin of ac system can be addressed using source and load impedances in d-q frame, method to specify the shape of load impedances to assure system stability is not reported. This research finds out that under unity power factor condition, three-phase ac system is decoupled. It can be simplified to two dc systems. Load impedances can be then specified to guarantee system stability and less conservative design.
- Doctoral Dissertations