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Turbulence Statistics and Eddy Convection in Heated Supersonic Jets
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Supersonic hot jet noise causes significant hearing impairment to the military workforce and results in substantial cost for medical care and treatment. Detailed insight into the turbulence structure of high-speed jets is central to understanding and controlling jet noise. For this purpose a new instrument based on the Doppler global velocimetry technique has been developed. This instrument is capable of measuring three-component velocity vectors over ex-tended periods of time at mean data-rates of 100 kHz. As a demonstration of the applicability of the time-resolved Doppler global velocimetry (TR-DGV) measurement technique, statistics of three-component velocity measurements, full Reynolds stress tensors and spectra along the stream-wise direction in a cold, supersonic jet at exit Mach number Mj = 1.4 (design Mach number Md = 1.65) are presented. In pursuance of extending the instrument to planar op- eration, a rapid response photomultiplier tube, 64-channel camera is developed. Integrating field programmable gate array-based data acquisition with two-stage amplifiers enables high-speed flow velocimetry at up to 10 MHz. Incor- porating this camera technology into the TR-DGV instrument, an investigation of the perfectly expanded supersonic jet at two total temperature ratios (TTR = 1.6 and TTR = 2.0) was conducted. Fourth-order correlations which have direct impact on the intensity of the acoustic far-field noise as well as convective velocities on the lip line at several stream-wise locations were obtained. Comprehensive maps of the convective velocity and the acoustic Mach number were determined. The spatial and frequency scaling of the eddy convective velocities within the developing shear layer were also investigated. It was found that differences in the radial diffusion of the mean velocity field and the integral eddy convective velocity creates regions of locally high convective Mach numbers after the potential core. This, according to acoustic analogies, leads to high noise radiation efficiency. The spectral scaling of the eddy convec- tive velocity indicates intermittent presence of large-scale turbulence structures, which, coupled with the emergence of Mach wave radiation, may be one of the main driving factors of noise emission observed in heated supersonic jets.
- Doctoral Dissertations