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dc.contributorVirginia Tech. School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciencesen_US
dc.contributorVirginia Tech. Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiologyen_US
dc.contributorVirginia Tech. Department of Chemical Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.authorMa, Saien_US
dc.contributor.authorSchroeder, Betsyen_US
dc.contributor.authorSun, Chenen_US
dc.contributor.authorLoufakis, Despina N.en_US
dc.contributor.authorCao, Zhenningen_US
dc.contributor.authorSriranganathan, Nammalwaren_US
dc.contributor.authorLu, Changen_US
dc.identifier.citationMa, S., Schroeder, B., Sun, C., Loufakis, D. N., Cao, Z., Sriranganathan, N., & Lu, C. (2014). Electroporation-based delivery of cell-penetrating peptide conjugates of peptide nucleic acids for antisense inhibition of intracellular bacteria. Integrative Biology, 6(10), 973-978. doi: 10.1039/C4IB00172A
dc.description.abstractCell penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been used for a myriad of cellular delivery applications and were recently explored for delivery of antisense agents such as peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) for bacterial inhibition. Although these molecular systems (i.e. CPP–PNAs) have shown ability to inhibit growth of bacterial cultures in vitro, they show limited effectiveness in killing encapsulated intracellular bacteria in mammalian cells such as macrophages, presumably due to difficulty involved in the endosomal escape of the reagents. In this report, we show that electroporation delivery dramatically increases the bioavailability of CPP–PNAs to kill Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 inside macrophages. Electroporation delivers the molecules without involving endocytosis and greatly increases the antisense effect. The decrease in the average number of Salmonella per macrophage under a 1200 V cm_1 and 5 ms pulse was a factor of 9 higher than that without electroporation (in an experiment with a multiplicity of infection of 2 : 1). Our results suggest that electroporation is an effective approach for a wide range of applications involving CPP-based delivery. The microfluidic format will allow convenient functional screening and testing of PNA-based reagents for antisense applications.
dc.description.sponsorshipVirginia Tech. Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science. NanoBio Thrust
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Science Foundation (U.S.) - CBET grant 1016547
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Science Foundation (U.S.) - CBET grant 0967069
dc.publisherThe Royal Society of Chemistry
dc.relation.ispartofseriesOpen access articles from Integrative Biology
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported
dc.subjectCell penetrating peptidesen_US
dc.subjectPeptide nucleic acidsen_US
dc.subjectBacterial inhibitionen_US
dc.titleElectroporation-based delivery of cell-penetrating peptide conjugates of peptide nucleic acids for antisense inhibition of intracellular bacteriaen_US
dc.typeArticle - Refereeden_US
dc.description.notesSupplementary information is included in a separate file
dc.title.serialIntegrative Biology

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