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dc.contributorVirginia Tech. Charles E. Via, Jr. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineeringen
dc.contributorUnited States. Environmental Protection Agency. National Risk Management Research Laboratory.en
dc.contributor.authorHolder, Amara L.en
dc.contributor.authorVejerano, Eric P.en
dc.contributor.authorZhou, Xinzheen
dc.contributor.authorMarr, Linsey C.en
dc.identifier.citationHolder, A. L., Vejerano, E. P., Zhou, X., & Marr, L. C. (2013). Nanomaterial disposal by incineration. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 15(9), 1652-1664. doi: 10.1039/C3EM00224Aen
dc.description.abstractAs nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which nanomaterials may enter incinerator waste streams and the fate of these nanomaterials during the incineration process. Although the literature on incineration of nanomaterials is scarce, results from studies of their behavior at high temperature or in combustion environments for other applications can help predict their fate within an incinerator. Preliminary evidence suggests nanomaterials may catalyze the formation or destruction of combustion by-products. Depending on their composition, nanomaterials may undergo physical and chemical transformations within the incinerator, impacting their partitioning within the incineration system (e.g., bottom ash, fly ash) and the effectiveness of control technology for removing them. These transformations may also drastically affect nanomaterial transport and impacts in the environment. Current regulations on incinerator emissions do not specifically address nanomaterials, but limits on particle and metal emissions may prove somewhat effective at reducing the release of nanomaterials in incinerator effluent. Control technology used to meet these regulations, such as fabric filters, electrostatic precipitators, and wet electrostatic scrubbers, are expected to be at least partially effective at removing nanomaterials from incinerator flue gas.en
dc.description.sponsorshipU.S. Environmental Protection Agency. National Center for Environmental Research STAR program - grant number 83485601en
dc.description.sponsorshipVirginia Tech. Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Scienceen
dc.publisherThe Royal Society of Chemistryen
dc.relation.ispartofseriesEnvironmental Science: Processes & Impacts: 2013 Review Articlesen
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unporteden
dc.subjectWaste disposalen
dc.titleNanomaterial Disposal by Incinerationen
dc.typeArticle - Refereeden
dc.contributor.departmentCivil and Environmental Engineeringen
dc.title.serialEnvironmental Science: Processes & Impactsen

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