Pure and Mixed Strategies in Cyclic Competition: Extinction, Coexistence, and Patterns
Intoy, Ben Frederick Martir
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We study game theoretic ecological models with cyclic competition in the case where the strategies can be mixed or pure. For both projects, reported in  and , we employ Monte Carlo simulations to study finite systems. In chapter 3 the results of a previously published paper  are presented and expanded upon, where we study the extinction time of four cyclically competing species on different lattice structures using Lotka-Volterra dynamics. We find that the extinction time of a well mixed system goes linearly with respect to the system size and that the probability distribution approximately takes the shape of a shifted exponential. However, this is not true for when spatial structure is added to the model. In that case we find that instead the probability distribution takes on a non-trivial shape with two characteristic slopes and that the mean goes as a power law with an exponent greater than one. This is attributed to neutral species pairs, species who do not interact, forming domains and coarsening. In chapter 4 the results of  are reported and expanded, where we allow agents to choose cyclically competing strategies out of a distribution. We first study the case of three strategies and find through both simulation and mean field equations that the probability distributions of the agents synchronize and oscillate with time in the limit where the agents probability distributions can be approximated as continuous. However, when we simulate the system on a one-dimensional lattice and the probability distributions are small and discretized, it is found that there is a drastic transition in stability, where the average extinction time of a strategy goes from being a power law with respect to system size to an exponential. This transition can also be observed in space time images with the emergence of tile patterns. We also look into the case of four cyclically competing strategies and find results similar to that of , such as the coarsening of neutral domains. However, the transition from power law to exponential for the average extinction time seen for three strategies is not observed, but we do find a transition from one power law to another with a different slope. This work was supported by the United States National Science Foundation through grants DMR-0904999 and DMR-1205309.
- Doctoral Dissertations