Modeling of high fluence Ti ion implantation and vacuum carburization in steel
Singer, Irwin L.
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Concentration‐versus‐depth profiles have been calculated for Ti and C in Ti‐implanted 52100 steel. A computer formalism was developed to account for diffusion and mixing processes, as well as sputtering and lattice dilation. A Gaussian distribution of Ti was assumed to be incorporated at each time interval. The effects of sputtering and lattice dilation were then included by means of an appropriate coordinate transformation. C was assumed to be gettered from the vacuum system in a one‐to‐one ratio with the surface Ti concentration up to a saturation point. Both Ti and C were allowed to diffuse. A series of experimental (Auger) concentration‐versus‐depth profiles of Ti‐implanted steel were analyzed using the above‐mentioned assumptions. A best fit procedure for these curves yielded information on the values of the sputtering yield, range, and straggling, as well as the mixing processes that occur during the implantation. The effective diffusivity of Ti was found to be 6×10− 1 5 cm2/sec, a value that is consistent with the cascade mixing mechanism. The effective diffusivity of C was found to be 6×10− 1 5 cm2/sec, and the sputtering yield by Ti atoms was best fit by a value of about 2. The observed range and straggling values were in very good agreement with the values predicted by existing theories, so long as the lattice was allowed to dilate.