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dc.contributor.authorMueller, Jerel Keithen_US
dc.date.accessioned2015-09-18T20:04:05Z
dc.date.available2015-09-18T20:04:05Z
dc.date.issued2015-09-09en_US
dc.identifier.othervt_gsexam:5102en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/56578
dc.description.abstractUltrasound waves are mechanical undulations above the threshold for human hearing, and have been used widely in both the human body and brain for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Ultrasound can be controlled using specially designed transducers into a focus of a few millimeters in diameter. Low intensity ultrasound, such as used in imaging applications, appears to be safe in adults. It is also known that ultrasound waves can penetrate through the skull and be focused within the brain for ablation purposes, employing the heat generation properties of high intensity focused ultrasound. High intensity focused ultrasound is thus used to irreversibly ablate brain tissue in localized areas without observable damage to intermediate tissue and vasculature. Ablation with high intensity focused ultrasound guided by magnetic resonance imaging is used for abolishing brain tumors, and experimentally for pain. Low intensity ultrasound can be utilized beyond imaging in neuroscience and neurology by focusing the ultrasound beam to investigate the structure and function of discrete brain circuits. In contrast to high intensity focused ultrasound, the effects of low intensity focused ultrasound on neurons are reversible. Considering the volume of work on high intensity focused ultrasound, low intensity focused ultrasound remains decidedly underdeveloped. Given the great potential for impact of low intensity focused ultrasound in both clinical and scientific neuromodulation applications, we sought to advance the use of low intensity focused ultrasound for noninvasive, transcranial neuromodulation of human cortex. This dissertation contains novel research on the use of low intensity transcranial focused ultrasound for noninvasive neuromodulation of human cortex. The importance of mechanical forces in the nervous system is highlighted throughout to expand beyond the stigma that nervous function is governed chiefly by electrical and chemical means. Methods of transcranial focused ultrasound are applied to significantly modulate human cortical function, shown using electroencephalographic recordings and behavioral investigations of sensory discrimination performance. This dissertation also describes computational models used to investigate the insertion behavior of ultrasound across various tissues in the context of transcranial neuromodulation, as ultrasound's application for neuromodulation is relatively new and crudely understood. These investigations are critical for the refinement of device design and the overall advancement of ultrasound methods for noninvasive neuromodulation.en_US
dc.format.mediumETDen_US
dc.publisherVirginia Techen_US
dc.rightsThis Item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. Some uses of this Item may be deemed fair and permitted by law even without permission from the rights holder(s), or the rights holder(s) may have licensed the work for use under certain conditions. For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights holder(s).en_US
dc.subjectUltrasounden_US
dc.subjecttranscranialen_US
dc.subjectmodulationen_US
dc.subjectnoninvasiveen_US
dc.subjectevoked potentialen_US
dc.subjectoscillationen_US
dc.subjectphaseen_US
dc.subjectneuronen_US
dc.subjectmembraneen_US
dc.subjectmechanical waveen_US
dc.subjectelectro-mechanicalen_US
dc.titleAdvancing Transcranial Focused Ultrasound for Noninvasive Neuromodulation of Human Cortexen_US
dc.typeDissertationen_US
dc.contributor.departmentBiomedical Engineeringen_US
dc.description.degreePh. D.en_US
thesis.degree.namePh. D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineBiomedical Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.committeechairTyler, Williamen_US
dc.contributor.committeechairVandeVord, Pamelaen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberGourdie, Roberten_US
dc.contributor.committeememberDavalos, Rafael V.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberRossmeisl, John H.en_US


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