High-efficiency Transformerless PV Inverter Circuits
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With worldwide growing demand for electric energy, there has been a great interest in exploring photovoltaic (PV) sources. For the PV generation system, the power converter is the most essential part for the efficiency and function performance. In recent years, there have been quite a few new transformerless PV inverters topologies, which eliminate the traditional line frequency transformers to achieve lower cost and higher efficiency, and maintain lower leakage current as well. With an overview of the state-of-the-art transformerless PV inverters, a new inverter technology is summarized in the Chapter 2, which is named V-NPC inverter technology. Based this V-NPC technology, a family of high efficiency transformerless inverters are proposed and detailly analyzed. The experimental results demonstrate the validity of V-NPC technology and high performance of the transformerless inverters. For the lower power level transformerless inverters, most of the innovative topologies try to use super junction metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor(MOSFET) to boost efficiency, but these MOSFET based inverter topologies suffer from one or more of these drawbacks: MOSFET failure risk from body diode reverse recovery, increased conduction losses due to more devices, or low magnetics utilization. By splitting the conventional MOSFET based phase leg with an optimized inductor, Chapter 3 proposes a novel MOSFET based phase leg configuration to minimize these drawbacks. Based on the proposed phase leg configuration, a high efficiency single-phase MOSFET transformerless inverter is presented for the PV micro-inverter applications. The PWM modulation and circuit operation principle are then described. The common mode and differential mode voltage model is then presented and analyzed for circuit design. Experimental results of a 250 W hardware prototype are shown to demonstrate the merits of the proposed MOSFET based phase-le and the proposed transformerless inverter. New codes require PV inverters to provide system regulation and service to improve the distribution system stabilization. One obvious impact on PV inverters is that they now need to have reactive power generation capability. The Chapter 4 improves the MOFET based transformerless inverter in the Chapter 3 and proposed a novel pulse width modulation (PWM) method for reactive power generation. The ground loop voltage of this inverter under the proposed PWM method is also derived with common mode and differential mode circuit analyses, which indicate that high-frequency voltage component can be minimized with symmetrical design of inductors. A 250-W inverter hardware prototype has been designed and fabricated. Steady state and transient operating conditions are tested to demonstrate the validity of improved inverter and proposed PWM method for reactive power generation, high efficiency of the inverter circuit, and the high-frequency-free ground loop voltage. Besides the high efficiency inverter circuit, the grid connection function is also the essential part of the PV system. The Chapter 5 present the overall function blocks for a grid-connected PV inverter system. The current control and voltage control loop is then analyzed, modeled, and designed. The dynamic reactive power generation is also realized in the control system. The new PLL method for the grid frequency/voltage disturbance is also realized and demonstrate the validity of the detection and protection capability for the voltage/frequency disturbance. At last, a brief conclusion is given in the Chapter 6 about each work. After that, future works on device packaging, system integration, innovation on inverter circuit, and standard compliance are discussed.
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