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dc.contributor.authorCapito, John I.en
dc.date.accessioned2015-11-13T20:44:46Zen
dc.date.available2015-11-13T20:44:46Zen
dc.date.issued1977en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/64125en
dc.description.abstractGroundwater on the eastern coast of the State of Virginia exceeds the Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminate Level (MCL) for fluoride. This thesis explores the use of alum and alum and lime for the reduction of fluoride to the MCL or lower. In order to reduce an initial fluoride concentration of 2.1 mg/l to 1.8 mg/l 125 mg/l alum was required, for reduction from 5.5 mg/l to 1.8 mg/l, 415 mg/l alum was needed, and for reduction from 8.0 mg/l to 1.8 mg/l, 670 mg/l alum was utilized. If the system pH was lowered below 6.0 the fluoride reduction was insufficient and thus lime was required to maintain the pH above 6.0. However, hardness increased with the lime dose and other methods of pH adjustment such as employing soda ash should be considered. Aluminum was detected in the unfiltered treated water, perhaps in sufficient concentrations to cause problems in the distribution system, but further testing of filtered samples is needed. Sulfates were low in the raw water, but buildup with the addition of alum. No tests were made for sulfates in the treated water. Tests of the sludge produced by the addition of alum and lime indicated high volumes, low solids and very poor dewatering characteristics. Polymers should be considered as a possible means to achieve better sludge dewatering.en
dc.format.extentvi, 57 leavesen
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdfen
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen
dc.relation.isformatofOCLC# 39309834en
dc.rightsIn Copyrighten
dc.rights.urihttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/en
dc.subject.lccLD5655.V855 1977.C27en
dc.titleDefluoridation of typical eastern Virginia groundwateren
dc.typeThesisen
dc.contributor.departmentSanitary Engineeringen
dc.description.degreeMaster of Scienceen
thesis.degree.nameMaster of Scienceen
thesis.degree.levelmastersen
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen
thesis.degree.disciplineSanitary Engineeringen
dc.type.dcmitypeTexten


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