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Wall Modeled Large Eddy Simulation of Flow over a Wall Mounted Hump
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Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is a relatively more accurate and reliable alternative to solution of Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations in simulating complex turbulent flows at a lesser computational cost than a direct numerical simulation (DNS). However, LES of wall-bounded flows still requires a very high grid resolution in the inner wall layer making its widespread use difficult. Different attempts have been made in the past time to overcome this problem by modeling the near wall turbulence instead of resolving it. One such approach is a two-layer wall model that solves for a reduced one-dimensional equation in the inner wall layer, while solving for the filtered Navier-Stokes equations in the outer layer. The use of such a model allows for a coarser grid resolution than a wall resolved LES. This work validates the performance of a two-layer wall model developed for an arbitrary body fitted non-orthogonal grid in the flow over a wall mounted hump at Reynolds number 9.36x105. The wall modeled large eddy simulation (WMLES) relaxes the grid requirement compared to a wall resolved LES (WRLES) by allowing the first off-wall grid point to be placed at a y+ of approximately 20-40. It is found that the WMLES results are general good agreement with WRLES and experiments. Surface pressure coefficient, skin friction, mean velocity profiles, and the reattachment location compare very well with experiment. The WMLES and WRLES exhibit some under prediction of the peak values in the turbulent quantities close to the reattachment location, with better agreement with the experiment in the separated region. In contrast, a simulation that did not employ the wall model on the grid used for WMLES failed to predict flow separation and showed large discrepancies with the experimental data. In addition to the relaxation of the grid requirement in the wall normal direction, it was also observed that the wall model allowed a reduction in the number of computational cells in the span-wise direction by half. However an LES calculation on a grid with reduced number of cells in span-wise direction turned unstable almost immediately, thereby highlighting the effectiveness of the wall model. Besides reducing the number of grid points in the spatial domain, the relaxed grid resolution for the WMLES also permitted the use of a larger time step. This resulted in an order of magnitude reduction in the total CPU time relative to WRLES.
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