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dc.contributor.authorBhagavathula, Rajaramen_US
dc.date.accessioned2016-01-13T09:00:11Z
dc.date.available2016-01-13T09:00:11Z
dc.date.issued2016-01-12en_US
dc.identifier.othervt_gsexam:6754en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/64451
dc.description.abstractNighttime intersection crashes account for nearly half of all the intersection crashes, making them a major traffic safety concern. Although providing lighting at intersections has proven to be a successful countermeasure against these crashes, existing approaches to designing lighting at intersections are overly simplified. Current standards are based on recommending lighting levels, but do not account for the role of human vision or vehicle headlamps or the numerous pedestrian-vehicle conflict locations at intersections. For effective intersection lighting design, empirical evidence is required regarding the effects of lighting configuration (part of the intersection illuminated) and lighting levels on nighttime visibility. This research effort had three goals. The first was to identify an intersection lighting design that results in the best nighttime visibility. The second goal was to determine the effect of illuminance on visual performance at intersections. The third goal was to understand the relationships between object luminance, contrast, and visibility. To achieve these goals, three specific configurations were used, that illuminated the intersection approach (Approach), intersection box (Box), and both the intersection approach and box (Both). Each lighting configuration was evaluated under five levels of illumination. Visibility was assessed both objectively (visual performance) and subjectively (perceptions of visibility and glare). Illuminating the intersection box led to superior visual performance, higher perceived visibility, and lower perceived glare. For this same configuration, plateaus in visual performance and perceived visibility occurred between 8 and 12 lux illuminance levels. A photometric analysis revealed that the Box lighting configuration rendered targets in sufficient positive and negative contrasts to result in higher nighttime visibility. Negatively contrast targets aided visual performance, while for targets rendered in positive contrast visual performance was dependent on the magnitude of the contrast. The relationship between pedestrian contrast and perceived pedestrian visibility was more complex, as pedestrians were often rendered in multiple contrast polarities. These results indicate that Box illumination is an effective strategy to enhance nighttime visual performance and perceptions of visibility while reducing glare, and which may be an energy efficient solution as it requires fewer luminaires.en_US
dc.format.mediumETDen_US
dc.publisherVirginia Techen_US
dc.rightsThis Item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. Some uses of this Item may be deemed fair and permitted by law even without permission from the rights holder(s), or the rights holder(s) may have licensed the work for use under certain conditions. For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights holder(s).en_US
dc.subjectIntersection Lighting Designen_US
dc.subjectVisual Performanceen_US
dc.subjectVisibilityen_US
dc.subjectIntersection Safetyen_US
dc.subjectGlareen_US
dc.titleEffects of Intersection Lighting Design on Driver Visual Performance, Perceived Visibility, and Glareen_US
dc.typeDissertationen_US
dc.contributor.departmentIndustrial and Systems Engineeringen_US
dc.description.degreePh. D.en_US
thesis.degree.namePh. D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineIndustrial and Systems Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.committeechairNussbaum, Maury A.en_US
dc.contributor.committeechairGibbons, Ronald Bruceen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberLau, Nathan Ka Chingen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberGabbard, Joseph L.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberPerez, Miguel A.en_US


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