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dc.contributorVirginia Tech. Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciencesen_US
dc.contributor.authorDwyer, James F.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMannan, R. Williamen_US
dc.date.accessioned2016-02-28T22:29:49Z
dc.date.available2016-02-28T22:29:49Z
dc.date.issued2007en_US
dc.identifier.citationDwyer, J. F., & William Mannan, R. (2007). Preventing Raptor Electrocutions in an Urban Environment. Journal of Raptor Research, 41(4), 259-267. doi:10.3356/0892-1016(2007)41[259:PREIAU]2.0.CO;en_US
dc.identifier.issn0892-1016en_US
dc.identifier.otherPreventing_Raptor.pdfen_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/64877
dc.description.abstractElectrocution of raptors on poles supporting overhead electric lines is a cause of concern in the United States. Techniques for modifying (i.e., retrofitting) potentially lethal poles to reduce electrocutions have been applied in rural areas to poles most likely to be used by raptors. However, raptors also live in urban areas, and criteria for selecting poles to retrofit in towns and cities may differ from those in rural areas. We assessed the effectiveness of using nest sites of Harris's Hawks (Parabuteo unicinctus) in Tucson, Arizona, U.S.A., as a means to focus proactive efforts to retrofit potentially lethal poles. Specifically, we investigated: (1) whether poles close to Harris's Hawk nests were more likely to cause electrocutions than more distant poles with the same configuration; and (2) whether retrofitting poles within 300 m of nests reduced electrocutions in treated areas. We assessed the number of electrocutions before and after retrofitting by searching for electrocuted hawks at a sample of poles. In 2003, we found 23 electrocuted Harris's Hawks within 300 m of nests. The proportion of poles that electrocuted a juvenile Harris's Hawk remained relatively constant from 0 to 300 m from nests. Poles 201-300 m from nests were more likely to electrocute subadult and adult hawks than were poles <200 m from nests. Prior to retrofitting poles, we detected 1.4 electrocutions per monitored nest. After about half of the potentially lethal poles within 300 m of nests were retrofitted, we detected 0.2 electrocutions per nest. For Harris's Hawks in Tucson, risk of electrocution was at least partially related to the proximity of nests to potentially lethal poles. This relationship also may hold for other medium- to large-bodied raptors nesting in urban environments. We recommend that all potentially lethal poles within 300 m of the nests of urban-nesting raptors be retrofitted through the addition of insulation, or through increased spacing between conductors.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipArizona Game and Fish Departmenten_US
dc.description.sponsorshipHeritage Fund Grant No. U03003en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipA Silliman Memorial Research Awarden_US
dc.format.extent8 p.en_US
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdfen_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherRaptor Research Foundationen_US
dc.rightsIn Copyright (InC)en_US
dc.rightsThis Item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. Some uses of this Item may be deemed fair and permitted by law even without permission from the rights holder(s), or the rights holder(s) may have licensed the work for use under certain conditions. For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights holder(s).en_US
dc.rights.urihttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/en_US
dc.subjectHarris’s Hawken_US
dc.subjectParabuteo unicinctusen_US
dc.subjectElectrocutionen_US
dc.subjectPower polesen_US
dc.subjectRetrofittingen_US
dc.subjectUrbanen_US
dc.titlePreventing Raptor Electrocutions in an Urban Environmenten_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.rights.holderRaptor Research Foundationen_US
dc.date.accessed2016-02-25en_US
dc.title.serialJournal of Raptor Researchen_US
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.3356/0892-1016(2007)41[259:PREIAU]2.0.CO;2
dc.identifier.volume41en_US
dc.identifier.issue4en_US
dc.type.dcmitypeTexten_US


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