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dc.contributorVirginia Tech. Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciencesen_US
dc.contributor.authorDwyer, James F.en_US
dc.date.accessioned2016-02-28T22:29:49Z
dc.date.available2016-02-28T22:29:49Z
dc.date.issued2014en_US
dc.identifier.citationDwyer, J. F. (2014). Correlation of Cere Color with Intra- and Interspecific Agonistic Interactions of Crested Caracaras. Journal of Raptor Research, 48(3), 240-247. doi:10.3356/0892-1016-48.3.24en_US
dc.identifier.issn0892-1016en_US
dc.identifier.other0892_1016_48_2E3_2E240.pdfen_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/64879
dc.description.abstractBright coloration in birds is an important indicator of individual quality often used in social displays. Structural, carotenoid-, and melanin-based colors are long-lasting, widespread, and widely studied. Hemoglobin-based colors are ephemeral, rare, and less studied. Hemoglobin-based displays occur when an individual facultatively enhances or restricts blood flow through caruncles, combs, wattles, or other highly vascularized un-feathered skin patches. In Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway; hereafter "caracara") highly vascularized ceres facultatively undergo immediately reversible hemoglobin-based color changes, hypothesized to correlate with status during contests. I predicted aggressors in contests would consistently display hemoglobin-deprived ceres (hereafter "light"), and receivers would display hemoglobin-enhanced ceres (hereafter "dark"), or vice versa. To test this hypothesis, I conducted 149 30-min group observations during which I recorded outcomes of all observed intra- and interspecific agonistic interactions involving caracaras in groups including up to 46 caracaras (x = 13.4, SD = 6.9). I recorded 2586 agonistic interactions in which I could identify cere colors and ages of both caracaras involved in an intraspecific interaction (n = 1160), or of one caracara involved in an interspecific interaction (n = 1426). Cere colors of caracaras were consistently light when acting as aggressors in intra- and interspecific agonistic interactions, and dark when acting as receivers. Within age classes, caracaras displaying light-colored ceres were consistently aggressors toward caracaras displaying dark ceres, and between age classes, adults with light-colored ceres were aggressors toward younger birds with dark ceres. Caracaras displaying light-colored ceres were aggressors toward Black Vultures (Coragyps atratus) and Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) and caracaras with dark ceres were receivers of aggression from these species. Regardless of the cere color, caracaras were subordinate to much larger Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and dominant over much smaller American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). My observations support the hypothesis that cere color is correlated with agonistic behaviors and support the signaling hypothesis by correlating specific cere colors displayed with individual roles in intra- and interspecific interactions.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipMacArthur Agro-ecology Research Center (MAERC)en_US
dc.format.extent7 p.en_US
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdfen_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherRaptor Research Foundationen_US
dc.rightsIn Copyright (InC)en_US
dc.rightsThis Item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. Some uses of this Item may be deemed fair and permitted by law even without permission from the rights holder(s), or the rights holder(s) may have licensed the work for use under certain conditions. For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights holder(s).en_US
dc.rights.urihttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/en_US
dc.subjectCrested Caracaraen_US
dc.subjectCaracara cheriwayen_US
dc.subjectCereen_US
dc.subjectFacial flushingen_US
dc.subjectFloridaen_US
dc.subjectNonbreedingen_US
dc.subjectSocial hierarchyen_US
dc.titleCorrelation of Cere Color with Intra- and Interspecific Agonistic Interactions of Crested Caracarasen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.rights.holderRaptor Research Foundationen_US
dc.date.accessed2016-02-25en_US
dc.title.serialJournal of Raptor Researchen_US
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.3356/0892-1016-48.3.240
dc.identifier.volume48en_US
dc.identifier.issue3en_US
dc.type.dcmitypeTexten_US


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