Regulation of fibroblast growth factor 15/19 and 21 on metabolism: in the fed or fasted state
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Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15/19 and FGF21 are two atypical members of FGF19 subfamily that function as hormones. Exogenous FGF15/19 and FGF21 have pharmacological effects, and endogenous FGF15/19 and FGF21 play vital roles in the maintenance of energy homeostasis. Recent reports have expanded the effects of FGF15/19 and FGF21 on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. However, the regulations of FGF15/19 and FGF21 on metabolism are different. FGF15/19 is mainly secreted from the small intestine in response to feeding, and FGF21 is secreted from the liver in response to extended fasting and from the liver and adipose tissue in response to feeding. In this work, we reviewed the regulatory effects of FGF15/19 and FGF21 on metabolism in the fast and fed states. This information may provide some insight into the metabolic regulation of FGF15/19 and FGF21 in different physiological condition.