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dc.contributor.authorRhoads, William J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorPruden, Amyen_US
dc.contributor.authorEdwards, Marc A.en_US
dc.identifier.citationRhoads, W. J., Pruden, A., & Edwards, M. A. (2016). Survey of green building water systems reveals elevated water age and water quality concerns. Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, 2(1), 164-173. doi:10.1039/C5EW00221Den_US
dc.identifier.otherCBET Award 1336650en_US
dc.description.abstractWidespread adoption of innovative water conservation strategies has potential unintended consequences for aesthetics and public health. A cross-section of green buildings were surveyed and compared to typical conventional buildings in terms of water retention time (i.e., water age), water chemistry, and levels of opportunistic pathogen genetic markers. Water age was estimated to be 2-6.7 months in an off-grid office, an average of 8 days in a Leadership in Environmental Engineering Design certified healthcare suite, and was increased to 2.7 days from 1 day due to installation of a solar "pre-heat" water tank in a net-zero energy house. Chlorine and chloramine residuals were often completely absent in the green building systems, decaying up to 144 times faster in premise plumbing with high water age when compared to distribution system water. Concentration of 16S rRNA and opportunistic pathogen genus level genetic markers were 1-4 orders of magnitude higher in green versus conventional buildings. This study raises concerns with respect to current green water system practices and the importance of considering potential public health impacts in the design of sustainable water systems.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipWater Research Foundationen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipAlfred P. Sloan Foundation. Microbiology of the Built Environment Programen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Science Foundation (U.S.)en_US
dc.format.extent10 p.en_US
dc.publisherThe Royal Society of Chemistryen_US
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported*
dc.titleSurvey of green building water systems reveals elevated water age and water quality concernsen_US
dc.contributor.departmentVirginia Tech. Charles E. Via, Jr. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineeringen_US
dc.description.notesContains supplementary information fileen_US
dc.description.notes2015 Royal Society of Chemistry Open Access Gold Articleen_US
dc.title.serialEnvironmental Science: Water Research & Technologyen_US

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