Investigation into the movements of cattle, sheep and goat herds through the commune of Madiama
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In chapter 4, Ballo and Ouattara describe the systems of animal husbandry within and around Madiama, thereby broadening the perspective of the landscape/lifescape scale. The chapter characterizes each of three livestock management types (sedentary, semi-transhumant, and transhumant) involving cattle, oxen, milk cows, sheep and goats. Pastoralists are either transhumant or resident, and often tend to the herds of local farmers much of the year. The pastoral resources available to the commune are limited and though traditional grazing of crop residues and fertilization of soil exists, there is increasing loss of organic matter. The chapter concludes that under Mali's new Pastoral Code, conditions could improve, but improvement will require the concerted efforts of agriculturalists and pastoralists.