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Crop-livestock competition in the West African derived savanna: Application of a multi-objective programming model
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Farming systems in West Africa are evolving from the currently predominant nomadic pastoralism and agropastoralism to crop-livestock mixed farming. It is hypothesized that the pace of this evolution may be influenced by competitiveness between crop and livestock enterprises. A field study in the derived savanna of SW Nigeria shows that at the current stage of evolution, as a crop farmer adds livestock to his farming system, there is a small initial gain, and then an increasing rate of substitution between crop and livestock. As a livestock rearer engages in crop production, there is a decreasing rate of substitution between livestock and crop. These patterns are due to the more intensive nature of crop production than livestock production, which depends principally on grazing natural pastures. It is suggested that if increased population pressure and cropping intensity severely limit access to grazing land, farm and herd sizes will become smaller, and the degree of integration between crop and livestock will increase. (CAB Abstracts)