Conservation narrative in Costa Rica: Conflict and co-existence
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The author of this article presents an overview of wildlife conservation efforts in Costa Rica and describes the different narratives regarding in wildlife conservation: the traditional narrative, which seeks to conserve wildlife species and their ecosystems by the establishment of parks and protected areas that exclude humans and restrict or prohibit access to these protected areas and their resources; and the more-recently developed counter-narrative, which recognizes the economic importance of access to wildlife and ecological resources and seeks to conserve these resources through sustainable use patterns and community-based conservation efforts. The traditional narrative has been implemented in Costa Rica since the early twentieth century; however, problems such as inadequate management and lack of enforcement of protected areas, along with the need to access resources in these areas for economic development, has shifted conservation efforts towards implementation of the counter-narrative. The author discusses conflicts between the two narratives as well as ways in which the different narratives co-exist with each other.