Overview of the World Bank's involvement in pastoral development
de Haan, C.
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De Haan identifies four phases in the development of thinking surrounding pastoralism over time. The first phase was the ranching phase where Western ranching techniques were exported along with heavy capital investment. The second phase saw the introduction of range and livestock projects and the development of communal areas through funding water, roads and markets. This was followed by the pastoral association phase when more attention was paid to the overall policy framework. These two phases produced mixed results: they relied on inappropriate incentive frameworks and over-rigid grazing- and land-rights. There were institutional weaknesses and the system of subsidies interfered with the natural equilibrium. The final phase was the Integrated Natural Resource Management Phase in which more attention was paid to natural resource management and all the stakeholders are involved in the process.