Environmental entitlements: Dynamics and institutions in community-based natural resource management
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While community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) now attracts widespread international attention, its practical implementation frequently falls short of expectations. This paper contributes to emerging critiques by focusing on the implications of intracommunity dynamics and ecological heterogeneity. It builds a conceptual framework highlighting the central role of institutions - regularized patterns of behavior between individuals and groups in society - in mediating environment-society relationships. Grounded in an extended form of entitlements analysis, the framework explores how differently positioned social actors command environmental goods and services that are instrumental to their well-being. Further insights are drawn from analyses of social difference; "new"; dynamic ecology; new institutional economics; structuration theory; and landscape history. The theoretical argument is illustrated with case material from India, South Africa, and Ghana. --Elsevier Science Ltd.