Prévention et gestion des conflits
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Reviews the three general types of conflicts in Burkina Faso: Rights to natural resources, union-related, and education related. Control of land resources has led to conflict because of 1) the ecological crisis and drought that has lead to great migrations of populations that have impinged greatly on pastoral zones; 2) new, urban actors have returned to the land due to difficulties in urban areas associated implementation of the Structural Adjustment Program; 3) social problems due to the integration of market forces in agriculture leading to large commercial farms and concurrently, smaller marginalized subsistence farmers who must work in other activities; 4) demographic pressure; 5) creation of large pastoral zones; 6) the legal dualism stemming from the co-existence of traditional and modern systems of law. The author characterizes a large number of conflicts associated with control of natural resources: farmer/herder, farmer/state, farmer/farmer, herder/herder/state, fisherfolk/herder/farmer, local collectives/local populations, and local collectives/state. The reality of conflict is much more than just farmer/herder. Causes include 1) insecurity and competition for natural resources; 2) policies governing the agro-pastoralist situation. The author recommends the creation of a "Conflict Observatory" with a permanent secretariat to monitor emerging conflicts.