Extra-household factors and women farmers' supply response in sub-saharan Africa
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This paper reflects on how often economic reforms do not create the expected result, and even increase pressures and burdens on women. The discussion highlights some factors that interfere with women's agriculture production, consumption and what they sell in local markets. These products are the nontraditional agricultural exports (NTAEs) that have become a source of export revenues. There are evidences that women participate in markets, but both the terms of and the extent of women's participation in markets is inferior to men's participation. The factors interfering with women's production are: women's land rights, social norms and new opportunities, as well as extra-household constraints in the supply response of women farmers.