Payments for watershed services
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A watershed is an area that drains to a common point, making it a useful unit for managing water resources. The key characteristic of watersheds, from a human perspective, is that water generally flows downhill, so that upstream land uses affect downstream conditions through hydrological linkages. All over the world, watershed management efforts aim to influence this upstream-downstream relationship. They do so by encouraging upstream land-use practices that are consistent with maintaining the watershed so that it yields water that is unpolluted, low in sediment, buffered against flash floods, and with minimal fluctuations in dry-season and groundwater flows (Swallow et al., 2004). Local conditions determine what is possible and how best to achieve it. The basic scientific challenge in managing watersheds is to understand how upstream land-use practices affect natural resource conditions downstream, while the basic socioeconomic problem is to encourage people in an upper watershed to adopt those practices even though the benefits will accrue downstream ' in other words, how to encourage them to deliver this environmental service.
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Experiences in integrated management of natural resources in the sub-watershed of the Chimbo River, Ecuador Barrera, Victor H.; Cruz, Elena; Alwang, Jeffrey; Escudero, Luis; Monar, Carlos (St. Joseph, MI: American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, 2010)As is typical of many rural areas in developing countries, the Andean region of Ecuador is characterized by extreme poverty, owing to low agricultural productivity, limited human skills in business management and implementation ...
Elazegui, Dulce D.; Combalicer, E. (Makati City, Philippines: Philippine Institute for Development Studies, 2004)This paper aims to showcase the experience of the Magat watershed in the implementation of the watershed management approach. Magat watershed was declared as a forest-reservation area through Proclamation No. 573 on June ...
Watershed-based natural resource management in small-scale agriculture: Sloped areas of the Andean Region Alwang, Jeffrey (2008)This presentation reports on the work of the SANREM CRSP long term research activity 3 (LTRA-3), "Watershed-based natural resource management (NRM) for small-scale agriculture."