Pro-poor payments for environmental services: Challenges for the government and administrative agencies in Vietnam
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This article assesses the role of government and administrative agencies in effective implementation of pro-poor PES (Payments for Environmental Services) programs. Vietnam is the case study, with data drawn from literature review, open-ended interviews, and a stakeholder workshop. The primary barriers are high transaction costs and insecure land tenure. The authors also discuss other challenges to implementation and suggest topics and approaches for future research to improve pro-poor PES.