Statistical Modeling and Analysis of Bivariate Spatial-Temporal Data with the Application to Stream Temperature Study
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Water temperature is a critical factor for the quality and biological condition of streams. Among various factors affecting stream water temperature, air temperature is one of the most important factors related to water temperature. To appropriately quantify the relationship between water and air temperatures over a large geographic region, it is important to accommodate the spatial and temporal information of the steam temperature. In this dissertation, I devote effort to several statistical modeling techniques for analyzing bivariate spatial-temporal data in a stream temperature study. In the first part, I focus our analysis on the individual stream. A time varying coefficient model (VCM) is used to study the relationship between air temperature and water temperature for each stream. The time varying coefficient model enables dynamic modeling of the relationship, and therefore can be used to enhance the understanding of water and air temperature relationships. The proposed model is applied to 10 streams in Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina and Georgia using daily maximum temperatures. The VCM approach increases the prediction accuracy by more than 50% compared to the simple linear regression model and the nonlinear logistic model. The VCM that describes the relationship between water and air temperatures for each stream is represented by slope and intercept curves from the fitted model. In the second part, I consider water and air temperatures for different streams that are spatial correlated. I focus on clustering multiple streams by using intercept and slope curves estimated from the VCM. Spatial information is incorporated to make clustering results geographically meaningful. I further propose a weighted distance as a dissimilarity measure for streams, which provides a flexible framework to interpret the clustering results under different weights. Real data analysis shows that streams in same cluster share similar geographic features such as solar radiation, percent forest and elevation. In the third part, I develop a spatial-temporal VCM (STVCM) to deal with missing data. The STVCM takes both spatial and temporal variation of water temperature into account. I develop a novel estimation method that emphasizes the time effect and treats the space effect as a varying coefficient for the time effect. A simulation study shows that the performance of the STVCM on missing data imputation is better than several existing methods such as the neural network and the Gaussian process. The STVCM is also applied to all 156 streams in this study to obtain a complete data record.
- Doctoral Dissertations