Effects of water chemistry and panning on flavor volatiles and catechins in teas (Camellia sinensis)
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In the first experiment, effects of brewing time, chlorine, chloramine, iron, copper, pH and water hardness were investigated for their effects on extraction of epigallocatechine gallate (EGCG) and caffeine in green tea and oolong tea aqueous infusions. The extraction of EGCG and caffeine were lower when green tea was brewed in hard water compared to distilled water. Brewing green tea and Oolong tea in tap water resulted in higher extraction of caffeine but had no effect on EGCG compared to distilled water. The extraction of EGCG and caffeine were significantly increased (P<0.05) when green tea and Oolong tea were brewed in the chlorinated water at 4.0 mg free chlorine per liter. The purpose of the second experiment was to optimize SDE conditions (solvent and time) and to compare SDE with SPME for the isolation of flavor compounds in Jin Xuan oolong tea using Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Gas Chromatography- Olfactrometry (GC-O). The concentration of volatile compounds isolated with diethyl ether was higher (P<0.05) than for dichloromethane and concentration was higher at 40 min (P<0.05) than 20 or 60 minutes. For SDE, 128 volatiles were identified using GC-MS and 45 aroma active compounds using GC-O. The number of volatiles identified using GC-MS was lower in SPME than SDE. For SPME, 59 volatiles and 41 aroma active compounds were identified. The composition of the volatiles isolated by the two methods differed considerably but provided complementary information. The goal of the third experiment was to determine effects of panning on flavor volatile compositions of oolong using GC-MS and GC-O. Simultaneous Distillation and Extraction (SDE) and Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) techniques were applied for extraction of volatiles in panned and unpanned teas. A total of 190 volatiles were identified from SDE and SPME extractions using GC-MS and GC-O. Trans-nerolidol, 2- hexenal, benzaldehyde, indole, gernaiol, and benzenacetaldehyde contents were significantly decreased (P<0.05) by panning; however, panning increased (P<0.05) contents of linalool oxide, cis jasmone, methyl salicylate in oolong tea. Overall, panning significantly changes the volatile compositions of the tea and created new aroma active compounds.
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