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Turbulence and Sound Generated by a Rotor Operating Near a Wall
Murray IV, Henry Hall
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Acoustic and aerodynamic measurements have been carried out on a rotor operating in a planar turbulent boundary layer near a wall for a variety of thrust conditions and yaw angles with respect to the inflow. At the highest thrust condition a strong flow reversal in the wall-rotor tip gap was observed. Average velocity fields filtered by the angular position of the rotor show that the flow reversal is fed by jets of fluid that tend to form below the blade as it passes by the wall. Instantaneous velocity measurements show the presence of strong vortices in the tip gap. These vortices were characterized and found to be both stronger and more numerous on the downstroke side of the tip gap. Additionally, vortices with the same handedness as the bound circulation in the blade were more numerous and only located on the downstroke side of the tip gap. Those with the opposite handedness were found to be only located on the upstroke side. Unexpectedly strong far-field acoustic response at the blade passage frequency at this highest thrust condition and is believed to be due to an interaction of the blade tip with these vortices. At moderate thrust, when the rotor was yawed toward the downstroke side the far field acoustic response at the blade passage frequency was found to increase. The opposite was true as it was yawed toward the upstroke side. At the highest thrust, however the unyawed rotor had the strongest blade passage frequency response which is believed to be due to stronger vortex-tip interaction in this case.
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