Towards a Self-Powered Structural Health Monitoring Smart Tire
Chung, Howard Jenn Yee
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This work investigates the feasibility of developing a self-powered structural health monitoring (SHM) smart tire using piezoelectric materials. While this work is divided into two components: SHM and energy harvesting, the context of smart tire in this work is defined as the development of a SHM system that (i) has self-powering capabilities, and (ii) addresses the potential of embedding sensors. The use of impedance based SHM on a tire is severely limited due to the low stiffness and high damping characteristics of the tire. This work propose the use of a high voltage impedance analyzer, and the addition of electrical circuit to enhance the damage detection process. Experimental work was conducted on an aluminum beam and on a tire section with commercially available piezoelectric sensors. The use of a high voltage impedance analyzer was demonstrated to provide insight on damage type and damage location. Two sensors were connected in parallel as an effective sensory system, and was shown to reduce interrogation time, but reduce damage identification sensitivity. With added electrical circuits, a belt separation on the tire was successfully detected by the shift in electrical impedance signature. For the energy harvesting portion of this work, a bimorph piezoelectric energy harvester model was derived using extended Hamilton's principle and the linear constitutive relations of piezoelectric materials. Comparison of model with experimental data at increasing loading conditions demonstrated the monotonic increase in voltage output, with linear asymptotes at extreme loading conditions (short-circuit and open-circuit). It also demonstrated the existence of an optimal resistive load for maximum power output. To address the ability to embed sensors, an existing fabrication process to grow arrays of ZnO nanowires in carbon fiber reinforced polymer was used in this work. Comparison of power generation from a composite beam with ZnO nanowires with a composite beam without ZnO nanowires demonstrated the power generation capabilities of the nanowires. A maximum peak voltage of 8.91 mV and peak power of 33.3 pW was obtained. After the application of 10V DC, a maximum of 45 pW was obtained. However, subsequent application of 20V DC reduced the maximum peak power output to 2.5 pW. Several attempts to increase power generation including adding a tip mass and changing the geometry of the composite beam were conducted. Finally, the theoretical voltage frequency response function obtained from the theoretical piezoelectric constant and dielectric constant of a single ZnO nanowire were compared to the experimental voltage frequency response function. The discrepancies were discussed.
- Masters Theses