Thermodynamics of polyelectrolyte solutions
Polymers having many ionizable groups in their molecular structure are called Polyelectrolytes. They are extensively used in industries like papermaking, food processing, medicine and pharmaceuticals, water purification, oil field exploration, cosmetic formulation etc. In spite of wide applicability its current status of knowledge is precursory due complexity of their behavior in solution as well as at interface. Solution properties of polyelectrolytes are extensively studied in last 40 years to understand their behavior. The activity is important thermodynamic property. From activity we can get most of thermodynamic properties like interaction parameter, free energy of dilution of the polyelectrolyte, degree of dissociation of polyelectrolytes etc.Several models of Polyelectrolytes thermodynamics have been proposed. Two general approaches have been used to model Polyelectrolytes thermodynamics, spherical and cylindrical (chain) models. Two of the successful models to explain and predict commonly measured properties of polyelectrolytes such as osmotic coefficient and counterion activity coefficients have been proposed by Manning and Oosawa. Most of these models are applicable at infinite dilution only may be due to weak inter chain interactions. An Excess Gibb’s free energy model can predict properties at finite concentrations of polyelectrolytes, which is combination of Manning model and Local composition model.Vapor pressure osmometry and isothermal Titration Microcalorimetry are experimental methods to determine the thermodynamic properties of polymer solvent system. Osmometry helps to understand the thermodynamics of polymer solutions as it determines the value of osmotic pressure, which in turn gives the value of thermodynamic parameters. Isothermal Titration Microcalorimetry gives the heat of dilution directly from which we can calculate activity of the solution.The osmotic coefficient and activity of water in aqueous NaPSS solution are found out using Vapor pressure osmometry and Isothermal titration calorimeter at different temperatures. The results are compared with result obtained by an excess Gibb’s free energy model. Measured data show good agreement with available literature data at that temperature.