The Effect of Supplemental Grape Seed Extract on Pig Growth Performance and Body Composition During Heat Stress
Smithson, Andrew Todd
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Prolonged exposure to high ambient temperature without cooling causes heat stress (HS) resulting in altered growth, body composition and metabolic dysfunction in pigs. Grape seed extract (GSE) has been shown to reduce inflammation, and improve glucose transport and metabolism. Thus, GSE may be an effective supplement to combat the consequences of heat stress; however this possibility has not been evaluated in a large animal model. The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of GSE supplementation on pig performance and body composition during HS. Twenty-four female pigs (62.3± 8 kg BW) were randomly assigned to a 2X2 factorial experiment; thermal neutral (TN; 21-22°C) or heat stress conditions (HS; 33-34°C) for 7 days and fed either a control or a GSE supplemented diet (12mg/kg body weight). Body temperature (TB), respiration rate (RR) and feed intake (FI) were measured daily. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Respiration rate and TB increased in the HS control group compared to the TN control group (p<0.05), however GSE did not alter these parameters compared to control for the duration of the 7 day period. HS decreased FI (P < 0.05). Fasting blood glucose concentrations were approximately 1.5-fold greater in the control diet compared to their GSE supplemented counterpart (p=0.067) on day 6 of the HS period, but did not differ between groups at the end of day 7 of HS. Body composition analysis indicated bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and percent change of fat remain unchanged between treatment groups. Percent change in weight was significantly reduced in HS. Lean tissue accretion was 45% greater in TN compared to HS groups (p<0.05). Endotoxin concentrations were approximately 2-fold lower in the HS-GSE group compared to the control (P=0.083). Grape seed extract supplementation does not appear to alter pig growth performance or body composition, but does appear to delay the onset of reduced feed intake by 1 day, reduce intestinal permeability, and improve insulin sensitivity during additional stress.
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